Where? East Devon, near Seaton
Why? Important for saltmarsh and mudflats, feeding grounds for wading birds and nursery areas for fish such as bass
Where? South Hams, upstream of Dartmouth
Why? Habitats provide food and shelter for huge range of species including seahorses, oysters, mussels, sponges and anemones.
Where? South Hams, near Bigbury
Why? Important nursery areas for crustaceans, molluscs and juvenile fish
Where? South Hams
Why? Habitats for lobsters and crabs, spawning grounds for sea trout
Where? 1055 sq km in south-west of Lyme Bay
Why? Area used by white beaked dolphins for feeding, breeding and raising their young. Also important for common dolphins, bottlenose dolphins and harbour porpoise. Basking shark and minke whale also recorded here. Feeding grounds for seabirds such as guillemot, razorbill and Balearic shearwater
Where? Bristol Channel, 5km off Baggy Point
Why? Rich communities of subtidal living reefs including ross worm reefs and mussel beds which provide shelter for many other marine species
Where? Bristol Channel, north-west of Lundy
Why? Diverse seabed habitats supporting higher than average range of species, including burrowing worms, clams and anemones.
Where? East Devon, near Budleigh Salterton
Why? Important for saltmarsh and mudflats, feeding grounds for wading birds such as curlew and lapwing. Nursery areas for several fish species
Where? North Devon, near Barnstaple and Bideford
Why? Important habitat for migratory European eels, feeding grounds for wading birds, nursery area for fish such as bass
Source: MPA News
When nations gathered in Paris last December to forge a pact on climate change, the agreement’s original text made no mention at all of oceans. Not only did this oversight ignore 71% of Earth’s surface; it also overlooked the fact that marine ecosystems act as an enormous climate control system.
The seas regulate the concentration of atmospheric CO2 worldwide by absorbing and storing it in a variety of ways. A healthy, resilient ocean – where there is abundant plant life to convert CO2 to oxygen, and abundant animal populations to store carbon in their shells, bodies, and wastes – may be key to helping mitigate the impacts of climate change.
Marine protected areas can play a role in fostering that healthy, resilient ocean. To be sure, addressing the enormous threat of global climate change will require much, much more than just MPAs. But MPAs do offer legitimate ways to store carbon and to offset some of the impacts of a changing climate. And practitioners are starting to explore some of these opportunities.
The 13th conference of the traditional biennial international event of the Coastal & Marine Union (EUCC) is “Littoral 2016” : The changing littoral. Anticipation and adaptation to climate change. The conference will be held in Biarritz (France) from October 25 to October 29, 2016.
The presentation of the conference can be found here: English Presentation-Littoral 2016.
- Deadline for the early-bird registration: 1st June 2016.
To find more information please consult the following website: littoral2016.univ-pau.fr
The series is intended to provide a research and social focus for university lecturers, research staff and postgraduate students interested in conservation research. The primary aim is to inform university colleagues of what research is going on in different departments and to bring in high quality outside speakers. Equally, members of conservation organisations are welcome to attend. A key element is the opportunity after each talk to socialise with colleagues from different departments and organisations.
This European Environment Agency (EEA) technical report presents an overview of the 2012 spatial distribution of the networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) established in the waters of EU), excluding overseas territories.
Source: Science for Environment Policy
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are widely used to safeguard marine ecosystems across Europe. This study investigated the effect of a partially protected area (PPA) off the coast of Norway on a population of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The PPA reduced the number of deaths due to fishing, increased survival and stimulated movement to surrounding areas. The authors say that preventing fishing altogether would increase survival even further and recommend no-take zones in areas where populations are severely reduced.
Marine fish populations are in decline worldwide. Of the 600 marine fish stocks monitored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 69% are fully or over-exploited1. To rebuild fish populations, MPAs, which ban some or all fishing activities in an area, have become widely used. Under the Natura 2000 network, almost 4% of European waters have been designated as MPAs2. Despite their widespread use, understanding of how MPAs affect harvested fish populations remains poor, especially for areas where some fishing is still permitted (PPAs).
This study investigated the effect of a PPA on Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) along the southeast Norwegian coast of Skagerrak. In 2006, a 1 km2 PPA was established in the region, where only hook and line fishing and research sampling (which involves fixed nets that do not harm the fish, so they can be captured and released alive) are permitted.
The researchers wanted to know whether implementation of the PPA changed fishing mortality proportions, and also if the protection caused survival rates to increase. To investigate this, they collected data on live re-captures and dead recoveries of cod before and after its implementation, as well as at several unprotected sites along the coastline.
Data was collected from 2005–2013 along Skagerrak. Each year, from April to July, Atlantic cod were captured, tagged and released, following a ‘Before-After Control-Impact’ approach. The researchers recorded the site where the cod was re-encountered, its body length, and whether the fish was alive.
The data was entered into a ‘capture-recapture model’, which integrated information on the site, time and cause of death with data about individual live fish, to link changes in survival to fishing pressure.
Data from a total of 10 764 fish clearly showed that the PPA had positive effects on the Atlantic cod population. After its implementation, the annual proportion of deaths due to fishing at the site decreased from 0.59 to 0.32 (where 1 = all fish deaths are due to fishing activities). Annual survival increased by 167% for small cod (16–44 cm in size) and 83% for large cod (45–97 cm). The PPA also acted as a source population, as migration into surrounding areas increased in the final years of the study.
Finally, the authors looked at what would happen if the PPA became a ‘no-take zone’, i.e. if no fishing activity were permitted at all. They found that banning fishing activity in the area would further increase annual survival — of large fish by an additional 44% and small fish by 100%. The authors therefore conclude that PPAs benefit Atlantic cod in Skagerrak by reducing fishing mortality, increasing survival and facilitating movement to open areas.
These findings will be important for future management strategies. The authors say MPAs that are no-take zones can increase survival, which may result in increases in population density and beneficial spill over to surrounding areas, and are likely to be most effective in areas where local populations are particularly reduced.
1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: General situation of world fish stocks. See: http://www.fao.org/newsroom/common/ecg/1000505/en/stocks.pdf
Source: Fernández-Chacón, A., Moland, E., Espeland, S. & Olsen, E. (2015). Demographic effects of full vs. partial protection from harvesting: inference from an empirical before-after control-impact study on Atlantic cod. J Appl Ecol, 52, 1206–1215DOI:10.1111/1365-2664.12477