Relevance and Applications Products from Space and Perspectives from Models
6 – 8 September 2016 | ESA-ESRIN, Frascati, Rome (Italy)
The Organising Committee of the Colour and Light in the Ocean from Earth Observation (CLEO) Workshop invites you to join us on 6-8 September 2016 at ESA ESRIN (http://www.esa.int/About_Us/ESRIN), in Frascati, Italy.
The CLEO Workshop aims to bring together all the professionals working in the field, to share the latest ideas and developments and to pave the way for future EO data exploitation and ocean-colour product development activities for research and modelling studies in climate, marine ecosystems and coastal processes in the era of the Sentinel-3 mission.
General topics considered appropriate for this workshop include:
* Ocean-Colour Applications for Climate Studies
* Light Field in the Ocean: Primary Production and Ocean Dynamics
* Non-Chlorophyll Components of Ocean Optics
* Pools of Carbon in the Ocean
* Phytoplankton diversity at global and regional scales
The workshop will be organised around keynote and contributed presentations with ample time for discussion. The number of participants is limited and all attendees are encouraged to make a contribution.
Abstracts will be accepted until 15-06-2016 and participants will be notified of acceptance by 15-07-2016.
For further details and to submit your abstract and to register, please visit the workshop website at: http://congrexprojects.com/2016-events/Cleo/home
The 13th conference of the traditional biennial international event of the Coastal & Marine Union (EUCC) is “Littoral 2016” : The changing littoral. Anticipation and adaptation to climate change. The conference will be held in Biarritz (France) from October 25 to October 29, 2016.
The presentation of the conference can be found here: English Presentation-Littoral 2016.
- Deadline for the early-bird registration: 1st June 2016.
To find more information please consult the following website: littoral2016.univ-pau.fr
We have highlighted the fact that the planet does not warm uniformly. Air temperatures warm faster than the oceans, air temperatures over land warm faster than global air temperatures. When you put a number on global warming, that number always depends on what you are measuring. And when you do a comparison, you need to ensure you are comparing the same things.The model projections have generally reported global air temperatures. That’s quite helpful, because we generally live in the air rather than the water. The observations, by mixing air and water temperatures, are expected to slightly underestimate the warming of the atmosphere.
One key complication that arises is that the observations typically extrapolate land temperatures over sea ice covered regions since the sea surface temperature is not accessible in that case. But the distribution of sea ice changes seasonally, and there is a long-term trend toward decreasing sea ice in many regions. So the observations actually represent a moving target.
When accounting for these factors, the study finds that the difference between observed and modeled temperatures since 1975 is smaller than previously believed. The models had projected a 0.226°C per decade global surface air warming trend for 1975–2014 (and 0.212°C per decade over the geographic area covered by the HadCRUT4 record). However, when matching the HadCRUT4 methods for measuring sea surface temperatures, the modeled trend is reduced to 0.196°C per decade. The observed HadCRUT4 trend is 0.170°C per decade.
Robust comparison of climate models with observations using blended land air and ocean sea surface temperatures
Authors Kevin Cowtan,Zeke Hausfather, Ed Hawkins, Peter Jacobs, Michael E. Mann, Sonya K. Miller, Byron A. Steinman, Martin B. Stolpe, Robert G. Way
The level of agreement between climate model simulations and observed surface temperature change is a topic of scientific and policy concern. While the Earth system continues to accumulate energy due to anthropogenic and other radiative forcings, estimates of recent surface temperature evolution fall at the lower end of climate model projections. Global mean temperatures from climate model simulations are typically calculated using surface air temperatures, while the corresponding observations are based on a blend of air and sea surface temperatures. This work quantifies a systematic bias in model-observation comparisons arising from differential warming rates between sea surface temperatures and surface air temperatures over oceans. A further bias arises from the treatment of temperatures in regions where the sea ice boundary has changed. Applying the methodology of the HadCRUT4 record to climate model temperature fields accounts for 38% of the discrepancy in trend between models and observations over the period 1975-2014.
When Sentinel-2a is joined in orbit by Sentinel-2b, the revisit time to any land surface will be five days or less.
The Sentinel-2a satellite, which takes visible and infrared pictures of the Earth, was launched in June and is now undergoing a period of commissioning.The observer is the second dedicated mission to fly in the European Union’s Copernicus programme. This will see a multi-billion-euro series of satellite sensors put in orbit over the next few years. Sentinel-2a, however, will be the system’s backbone, producing a wide range of imaging products that will focus predominantly on the planet’s land surface. The European Space Agency, which led the development of the platform, released views on what to expect from cities and forests to glaciers and coral reefs.
Sentinel-2a is the European equivalent of America’s Landsat mission, which has been imaging the surface of the Earth for 40 years. The US satellite’s data is free and open, which has driven a multitude of applications. Sentinel’s data has been designed to be complementary, but the platform also represents a big jump in capability.Its imaging instrument will be sensitive across more bands of light (13 versus Landsat’s eight), allowing it to discern more information about the land beneath it; and Sentinel-2a will “carpet map” a much wider strip of ground (290km versus 185km).
Italy’s Venice lagoon, where image demonstrates the ability to monitor sediment transport in coastal waters.
Sentinel-2 image over southern Spain from 12 July 2015, and how information on inland water bodies can be isolated to help better detect changes. By providing measurements of water quality and detecting changes, Sentinel-2 can support the sustainable management of water resources.
Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park (with Uluru, or Ayers Rock, on the right): Australia recently signed an agreement with Esa to host a mirror server for Sentinel-2a data
Centre-pivot irrigation fields in Saudi Arabia: A false colour image that highlights the water-fed vegetation in the desert.
Corals off Saudi Arabia: Although primarily a mission to study land surfaces, Sentinel-2a will also return data on coastal waters.
Berlin is one of Europe’s greenest capitals; false colouring highlights vegetation in red
Naples and Mount Vesuvius: Sentinel data will track environmental change but also inform and help enforce EU policy.
By Magdalena A K Muir, Climate Editor
Following the 2011 inaugural Summit, the Eye on Earth 2015 promotes dialogue and drives international action that revolutionises the way collect, access, share and use data and information for real-world change. The 2015 summit will seek to foster a culture of collaboration through a network committed to achieving scalable impact for a sustainable future. Based on their focus on the Oceans and Blue Carbon initiative, the 2015 Summit is very relevant for coastal and marine areas.
The Oceans & Blue Carbon Initiative
- Uses innovative technologies and Citizen Science techniques to develop dynamic habitat mapping and validation and upload tools to deliver timely, fit-for purpose, reliable and interoperable spatial datasets for mangroves, saltmarshes and sea grasses;
- Develops internationally approved methodologies and data standards to meet the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) requirements for transparent, complete, consistent, comparable and accurate data;
- Builds user communities, networks and local capacities to maximise the uptake of methodologies, data interoperability, and implementation and interpretation of carbon and ecosystem service assessments for management planning and knowledge sharing;
- Integrates work across on-going and future activities in Blue Carbon on a global scale.
- Increases usage of ecosystem based approached in coastal management and conservation, which maximise climate change mitigation and adaptation potential;
- Reduces uncertainties and risk in trade-offs between development and conservation, particularly with respect to vulnerable populations; and
- Develops greater local capacity to use market-based mechanisms as a source of sustainable financing for coastal management and conservation.
Stakeholders of the Oceans & Blue Carbon initiative include: Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi (EAD), Abu Dhabi Global Environmental Data Initiative (AGEDI), Global Environment Fund (GEF), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UNEP Global Resource Information Database (GRID) – Arendal, World Bank, Blue Ventures, Ecological Society of America (ESA), United States Geological Survey (USGS), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI), Forest Trends, Open Oceans Global (OOG) and Conservation International.
Data Innovation Challenges
The organizers of the Eye on Earth Summit have three data innovation challenges for which the finalists will have the opportunity to present their ideas at the Summit in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The three competitions launched are the Data Innovation Showcase, Data Visualization Challenge and Blogging Competition, all of which support the Summit in its focus on using data to secure future for coasts, oceans and the planet..
Under the Innovation Showcase, citizen scientists are invited to create projects that use open data to: better manage food distribution and consumption, and reduce waste; support the health of forest ecosystems; and benefit urban biodiversity. According to the competition organizers, possible project ideas range from crowdsourcing data for tree inventories to creating a platform for getting excess food to people in need. Three finalists will be selected from this competition to present their work at the Summit, where a winner will be chosen.
Artists, designers and others interested in the creative display of data are invited to take part in the Visualization Challenge, which requires entrants to build visual interpretations of the social and economic impacts of poor air quality, oceanic warming and natural disasters. Participants can use images, animations, infographics, three-dimensional (3-D) models, computer simulations, interactive maps and diagrams, and other types of visualizations. One finalist will be selected to attend the Summit.
The Blogging Competition calls on writers and bloggers to submit a piece under the theme ‘A Better World through Knowledge and Information.’ The submissions are requested to be aimed at catalyzing the ‘data revolution’ by addressing how to improve data availability for a more sustainable future and healthier planet. The winner will report live from the Summit as the ‘Official Eye on Earth Summit 2015 Blogger.’ The selected finalists will have their airfare and lodging covered so they may participate in the Summit, which will take place on 6-8 October 2015, in Abu Dhabi, UAE.