COP 22 Video Presentations on Ocean Acidification, Ocean De-Oxygenation and the Melting Arctic Ocean

By Magdalena A K Muir, Advisory Board Member, Climate and Global Change, EUCC

Videos are being posted Youtube for oceans panels presentation at COP 22. Three oceans issues at that are being highlighted are the ocean acidification, ocean de-oxygenation, and the melting Arctic ice and warming oceans.

COP-22: Ocean Acidification: Building Scientific & Political Capacity

he United States is leading efforts around the world to expand capacity for scientists in developing countries to measure ocean acidification (caused by rising CO2 in the atmosphere) and track its impacts such as erosion of coral reefs or loss of bivalve fisheries. The effect of high CO2 on the oceans is a major reason why the UNFCCC is focusing on figuring out how to reduce temperature increases from 2° to 1.5° C. Several workshops have been held in the past year under auspices of the Global Ocean Acidification (OA) Observing Network to expand participation from African countries. This event will showcase those activities with testimonials from African scientists from Egypt, Namibia and South Africa about the importance of this work for building resilience to ocean acidification in the developing world. The event will end with a call to support an international political alliance focused on OA resilience issued by the U.S. Pacific Coast Collaborative. The international political alliance is teaming with the Global OA Observing Network to leverage political influence to expand resources for this important effort.

COP-22: Ocean Deoxygenation: The Climate Impact We Aren’t Considering

The ocean is losing oxygen due to climate change in a process known as ocean deoxygenation. Although oxygen levels fundamentally structure marine ecosystems and influence fish behavior, abundance, and diversity, this impact is rarely mentioned. In fact, only one INDC mentions ocean oxygen loss as part of its climate adaptation strategy, leaving fisheries of other countries vulnerable to these unaccounted for impacts. This talk will explain how climate change affects ocean oxygen levels, how changes in oxygen influence marine communities and fisheries, and what steps countries should be taking to monitor oxygen loss along their coastlines.

COP-22: The Melting Arctic: A Glimpse into the Future of Global Climate Change

The Arctic is warming at twice the rate as the global average with profound consequences for the region and communities all over the world. This multi-media event will explain the most recent scientific understanding of climate change impacts in the Arctic, and extrapolate from the Arctic example the scientific and policy challenges that are on the horizon for the rest of the world. Speakers from the scientific and policy communities will also highlight the actions that are being taken to slow the pace of warming and respond to climate change.

Each speaker will present for 10 minutes followed by a moderated Q&A. Dr. Stephen Vavrus will discuss current scientific research on climate change and the Arctic, including the role of arctic climate change on worldwide weather and weather extremes. Deputy Special Envoy Karen Florini will provide an overview of U.S. efforts domestically and through the Arctic Council to drive down emissions of super pollutants, expand access to renewable energy, and enable communities to better prepare for and respond to climate impacts in the Arctic. Using the NASA hyperwall to show powerful visualizations of Arctic changes and NASA’s ground-breaking research, NASA scientist Dr. John Reager will explain the science behind a changing Arctic, the relationship with extra-Arctic impacts and gaps in the science that require further study. Finally, Dr. David Weindorf will preview his feature length documentary, “Between Earth and Sky,” a film that explores the influence of climate change in Alaska.


Oceans Action Day at COP 22 – Extracts of IISD Summary Report

By Magdalena A K Muir, Advisory Board Member, Climate and Global Change, EUCC
This is an abbreviated summary of the IISD Oceans Action Day report located on the web here:
There were over 450 participants from governments, non-governmental and inter-governmental organizations, and civil society. 
Her Royal Highness Princess Lalla Hasna, Kingdom of Morocco, opened Oceans Action Day at UNFCCC COP22, highlighting Morocco’s Blue Belt initiative, to develop socio-economic activities from marine resources in coastal communities in Morocco. She noted the social, economic and cultural importance of oceans to Morocco and outlined several initiatives to preserve the services provided by oceans to local communities.
His Serene Highness Prince Albert II of Monaco highlighted the UN initiatives that seek to protect marine areas beyond national jurisdiction. He underscored that oceans need to be decarbonized and protected from rising temperatures. He underlined challenges such as: understanding oceans’ complexity; ocean acidification and pollution; insuring blue growth; and recognizing oceans’ role in saving our climate and planet. 
KEYNOTE SPEAKERS: Aziz Akhannouch, Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries, Morocco, explained that global terrestrial systems’ resilience cannot be solved without considering oceans. He cautioned that fisheries management is based on data from research supported by government funds that often have interests in maximizing sustainable yield.
Ségolène Royal, Minister of the Environment, Energy and the Sea, France, explained that the protection of seas presents a potential for blue growth to address the food and health challenges currently being faced. She advocated for oceans to be recognized as a common heritage to humanity. She explained that France’s extensive marine territory around the planet means France has duties, as opposed to rights in terms of responsible marine resource conservation and stewardship.
Karmenu Vella, Commissioner on Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, European Commission, highlighted actions necessary to reinforce international ocean governance such as: ensuring strong rules that all countries must play by; international rules to prevent illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in the Arctic and Antarctic oceans; and the EU Strategy on Green Infrastructure.
Maria-Helena Semedo, Deputy Director General, FAO, underscored the importance of including not just green, but also blue economy goals and explained that the fisheries sector generates larger revenues than many other terrestrial sectors combined.
OCEANS AND CLIMATE: SOLUTIONS TO THE CORE ISSUES PART I: This session was moderated by Manuel Barange, Director, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Division, who explained that the impacts of climate change will impact fishing communities differently, given that some communities are more dependent on fish resources than others.
Catherine Novelli, Under Secretary of State, US, noting that oceans could be reaching a tipping point, explained that climate change is already pushing some fish populations to migrate towards cooler waters. She drew attention to the Obama Administration’s contributions to global efforts to protect oceans including the “Our Ocean” movement, which she explained has helped secure the protection of an ocean area corresponding nearly to the size of continental Africa in three years.
Laura Tuck, World Bank, drew attention to World Bank initiatives such as: developing a blue economy development framework for developing countries; promoting climate resilience in coastal management; and mainstreaming natural resources in development planning and national economic accounts through the Wealth Accounting and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services (WAVES) global partnership.
Premdut Koonjoo, Minister of Ocean Economy, Marine Resources, Fisheries, Shipping and Outer Islands, Mauritius, stated that climate change is a threat multiplier for the marine environment and underscored the need to mobilize both the private and public sectors to meet the demands ahead. He urged using public resources to mobilize private resources and develop fit-for-purpose financial mechanisms.
Greg Stone, Conservation International, for Anote Tong, former President of Kiribati, opened saying to solve the climate problem oceans have to be part of the solution  He noted that when mainstreaming oceans into the climate agenda, all stakeholders should be involved, including Indigenous Peoples whom he explained, have a deep knowledge of the ocean that provides a critical understanding of how the world works.
OCEANS AND CLIMATE: SOLUTIONS TO THE CORE ISSUES PART II: This session was moderated by Biliana Cicin-Sain, President, Global Ocean Forum. She queried how to move the oceans agenda forward, and called attention to the Strategic Action Roadmap on Oceans and Climate 2016-2021, which presents a guide to action on mitigation, adaptation, displacement, financing, and capacity development related to oceans, for implementation in the next 5 years.
Ronald Jumeau, Ambassador for Climate Change and SIDS Issues, Seychelles, provided an overview of innovative initiatives that Seychelles is pursuing to address climate change in the context of oceans, including: a debt for adaptation swap, whereby national debt is purchased in exchange for converting 30% of the exclusive economic zone into a marine protected areas; and discussions with the World Bank and the African Development Bank to develop blue bonds, which will be passed on to the fishing sector as sustainable loans.
Oumar Gueye, Minister of Fisheries and Maritime Economy, Senegal, called for understanding the role oceans play in providing essential resources for food, climate, transportation, livelihoods. Describing a number of domestic measures to conserve ocean resources, he underscored the need for global decisions on issues such as IUU fishing.
Abdelmalek Faraj, Director, Institut National de Recherche Halieutique, Morocco, presented the Moroccan Blue Belt initiative, which supports national and regional strategies for the management and governance of oceans, is inclusive and complementary, and aims to contribute to meeting the Sustainable Development Goals.
OCEANS AND CLIMATE: SCIENCE SOLUTIONS: This session was moderated by Vladimir Ryabinin, Executive Secretary, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission-UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization who called for developing an assessment of the value of oceans to humankind.
Hans-Otto Pörtner, Co-Chair, IPCC Working Group II, stated that the role of science is to reduce uncertainties and lamented that thus far there has been a degree of societal inertia and inaction to address issues highlighted by science.
Christopher Fox, Director of Special Projects, Ceres, described the work of his organization to encourage the investment community to incorporate long-term environmental and social risks into their decision-making, and that climate messages should be translated into language that the private sector can understand.
Achmad Poernomo, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Indonesia, underscored the importance of involving local communities to build climate resilience and adaptive capacity, and stressed the need to make use of community perspectives.
Françoise Gail, Ocean and Climate Platform, underscored that marine assessments should include a climate component and stated a need to move from science to policy.
SEGMENT 1: ADAPTATION CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES: This session was moderated by Jacqueline McGlade, UN Environment Programme (Ui Palau, said Palau has embarked on a number of  efforts to protect the marine environment, including creating a marine protected area network and collaborating on ocean acidification issues.
Kathy Baughman McLeod, The Nature Conservancy, stated that nature reduces risk cost-effectively. She highlighted the importance of quantifying and assessing natural systems and how they contribute to reducing climate risk.
Dina Ionesco, International Organization for Migration said climate migration is increasingly being recognized as a key global issue, citing ocean protection as central to addressing these issues.
Sylvie Goyet, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, said the Pacific region looks at mitigation and adaptation as a single issue and underscored that a transformational development path is needed.
Marco Ruiz, Ministry of Environment, Peru noted efforts in this sector involve increasing the adaptability of fishermen, and reducing their vulnerability.
SEGMENT 2: MITIGATION ACTIONS AND NDCS: This session was moderated by Sandrine Dixson-Declève, Sustainable Energy for All, who outlined initiatives promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency in Small Island Developing States.
Amb. Waldemar Coutts, Director for Environmental and Ocean Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Chile, said that Chile believes MPAs are vital to restoring fisheries, with key attributes including, inter alia: a no-take policy; management plans; permanence; surveillance measures; and allowing an important role for communities.
Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, WWF, stressed that the climate change agenda should focus on ethics, solidarity and connectedness, and noted that oceans are not beholden by national borders.
Raffael Jovine, Founder and Chief Scientist of Algae Ltd., outlined his company’s efforts in producing algae at scale, to contribute to, among others, animal feed; and said that employing ocean systems for biomass production creates employment which could have important impacts on the climate agenda
 Dorothee Herr, Manager, Oceans and Climate, IUCN, said coastal ecosystems are important for storing and sequestering carbon. She highlighted the Blue Carbon Initiative, which aims to mitigate climate change through the restoration and sustainable use of coastal and marine ecosystems, noting an increasing interest from governments.
Edmund Hughes, International Maritime Organization outlined efforts including the Ballast Water Management Convention and a roadmap to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from ships.
Eric Banel, General Secretary, French Shipowners’ Association, said that shipping can be a part of the climate solution.
Najlaa Diouri, Tanger Med Port, said that ships require infrastructure to decrease sea pollution. She remarked on the construction of infrastructure to minimize pollution in the port, and said that this is a successful example of a public-private partnership.
SEGMENT 3: ACCESS TO FINANCE AND BUILDING CAPACITY FOR THE BLUE ECONOMY UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE: This session was moderated by Tiago Pitta e Cunha, CEO, Oceano Azul Foundation, Portugal, who noted that the blue economy must be a leading part of the world’s movement toward low-carbon economy.
Hiroshi Terashima, Ocean Policy Research Institute, Sasakawa Peace Foundation, Japan, advocated for adopting a concrete action plan and roadmap for adaptation and mitigation that is inclusive of oceans and islands. He said high-level political leaders with a firm understanding of the importance of oceans must show leadership in the drafting and implementation of NDCs.
Stressing the need to raise awareness on the consequences of climate change, Hrund Hafsteinsdóttir, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Iceland, underscored the need to create synergies that include the whole blue economy, in cooperation with key partners, like the World Bank and FAO.
Angus Friday, Ambassador of Grenada to the US, discussed financing and capacity building from an innovation perspective, highlighting debt financial swaps to direct debt repayments towards conservation, blue bonds, blue insurance and crowd funding for the blue economy.
This session was moderated by Biliana Cicin-Sain, and Manuel Barange, FAO.  Dessima Williams, Special Adviser on Implementation of the SDGs to Ambassador Peter Thomson, President of the UN General Assembly, stressed the need to maintain the level of political will, capacity building, financing, stakeholder engagement and solution-based approaches. Naoko Ishii, CEO and Chairperson, Global Environment Facility noted important work on oceans already in progress, including the GEF’s assistance to the Seychelles in their issuance of a blue bond, and drew attention to the Global Commons Initiative, which is a multi-stakeholder initiative to safeguard the Earth’s overstretched resources.

Pavilion of France “Because the Ocean Declaration” at COP 22

By Magdalena A K Muir, Advisory Board Climate and Global Change, EUCC
The Pavillion of France meeting welcomed the commitments of the second “Because the Oceans” Declaration. His Serene Highness (HSH) Prince Albert II of Monaco noted progress made since the first Oceans Declaration at COP 21 in Paris France, and invited new countries to sign the second “Because the Oceans” Declaration because the consequences of damages to the oceans will be felt worldwide. Tommy Remengesau, President of Palau, highlighted the need for partnerships to protect oceans, and invited more countries to sign the second “Because the Oceans” Declaration. 
Hilda Heine, President of the Marshall Islands, underscored the need to synergize actions and find solutions to enable low-lying and island countries to live in their lands. Julie Bishop, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Australia, noted the importance of coral reefs for protecting coastlines and generating income. Peter Thomson, President of the UN General Assembly, invited all countries to participate in the high-level UN Conference on Oceans and Seas to be held in June 2017 to discuss climate impacts on oceans and how to achieve SDG 14 (conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development).
Anote Tong, Conservation International, hoped for an instrument similar to REDD+ to protect oceans. Isabella Lövin, Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden, said developing countries need help to implement the Paris Agreement and to coordinate efforts on fisheries management. Edgar Gutierrez, Minister of Environment and Energy, Costa Rica, underscored that marine resources are important for advancing our common goal to preserve ecosystems and livelihoods. Didier Dogley, Minister of Environment, Energy and Climate Change, Seychelles, noted the challenges climate change poses to the environment and people’s survival. 
Paula Bennett, Minister of Climate Change Issues, New Zealand, said that oceans are crucial for our livelihoods, and outlined her country’s actions to protect oceans. 
Catherine Stewart, Ministry of Environment, Canada, underlined the importance of oceans and their management. Pablo Saavedra, Secretary of State for the Environment, Spain, noted the importance of ocean sustainable development and said the forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) special report will increase our knowledge on oceans and climate change.María Amparo Martínez Arroyo, General Director of the National Institute of Ecology and Climate Change, Mexico, noted the need to undertake more concrete actions at all levels to link all UN conventions and all goals to save our oceans. 
Ramatoulaye Dieng, Secretary General, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Senegal, stressed the need to mainstream ocean actions to face climate change challenges. Achmad Poernomo, Senior Advisor to the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Indonesia, underscored the importance of international cooperation to reach climate justice. Carlos Rafael Polo Castaneda, Ambassador of Peru to Morocco, noted the importance of oceans for Peru’s livelihoods. Françoise Gaill, National Centre for Scientific Research, France, noted the need to act to preserve oceans, which are part of the climate change solution. Heraldo Munoz, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Chile, noted progress in inserting oceans in UNFCCC negotiations since 2015.
More information:

Because of the Oceans Declaration webpage

IISD Video on Oceans Action Day at COP 22 in Marrakech on November 12, 2016

By Magdalena A K Muir, Advisory Board Member, Climate and Global Change, EUCC 

As part of its reporting on Oceans Action Day, IISD Reporting Services and the Earth News Bulletin produced a short video describing the intent behind Oceans Action Day, and introducing some of the key actors, including Biliana Cincin-Sain and the Global Oceans Forum, which EUCC has been collaborating with since its inception in 2002.
More detailed analysis and a meeting report from Oceans Action Day, and a discussion of the outcomes of COP 22 for oceans and coasts will be available subsequently.

Oceans Action Day at COP 22 12 November 2016 | Marrakesh, Morocco

By Magdalena A K Muir, Advisory Board Climate and Global Change, Coastal and Marine Union (EUCC)
Oceans Action Day at COP 22 is organized by the Government of Morocco, the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the Global Ocean Forum, and the Ocean and Climate Platform. The co-organizers include the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission/UNESCO; the Ocean Policy Research Institute, Sasakawa Peace Foundation, Japan; the Oceano Azul Foundation and Oceanario de Lisboa, Portugal; and the World Bank.Oceans Action Day at COP 22 will bring together leaders in the UNFCCC negotiations, high-level representatives from governments, intergovernmental/international organizations, and civil society to advance the oceans and climate change agenda at COP 22 and beyond.
The major objectives are to: highlight examples of adoption and implementation of the Paris Agreement; lend political support and provide suitable policy options in the implementation of actions on oceans, seas, coasts, and small island developing States (SIDS) issues in the context of the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially SDG 14 on oceans and seas; connect the oceans, coasts and climate initiatives generated at and following COP 21 with national actions plans, initiatives and commitments, such as the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and the SDGs (as called for in the Road Map for Global Climate Action); showcase and promote financial support and capacity development to enable nations to fulfill their NDCs, with special emphasis on oceans, seas and coasts, and on the concerns from SIDS and African States; and develop specific next steps for advancing the oceans and climate issues in the UNFCCC process in the next phase, as part of the Road Map for Global Climate Action, and to implement UN SDG 14.
The global ocean is fundamental to sustaining life on Earth; it is a major carbon sink, it absorbs heat, and produces half the oxygen we breathe. The ocean is also a major avenue for achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals through the development of the Blue Economy. Shipping, fisheries and aquaculture, energy, biotechnology, and mineral and biological extraction already generate USD 3-6 trillion. However, climate change is having profound, diverse, and regionally disproportionate impacts, on ocean ecosystems and the services they provide. Considerable capacity development and financing are required to cohesively address the challenges of climate change, especially those on coastal and small island populations. 
COP 21 highlighted the importance of oceans in the climate system through the mobilization of over 150 parties and 40 ocean-related events. COP 22 will translate mobilization into action, with an adaptation and mitigation agenda that includes innovative and ambitious measures, supported by matching financing mechanisms and capacity development packages. 
This Global Action Event will showcase how the world is tackling climate change impacts on oceans, seas, and coastal and island contexts. Its purpose is to review initiatives launched in COP 21 as part of the Lima-Paris Action Agenda, announce new initiatives, with multi-national and multi-stakeholder contributions to the solution space, and kick start a new way of linking ocean conservation and development agendas
. The Oceans Global Action Event will culminate in an Outcome Document, which will make the following key recommendations: 
1. Support the World Bank (WB)- African Development Bank (AfDB)- Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) package on Ocean economy and climate change in Africa; 
2. Support the implementation of the Morocco-FAO Blue Belt initiative; 
3. Encourage innovation in the design and implementation of adaptation and mitigation measures at household, local, national and regional levels involving public and private sectors (technology/science solutions, insurance schemes, etc.); 
4. Reiterate the importance of healthy ocean ecosystems in the adaptation to and mitigation of climate change impacts and highlighting the need to support countries in achieving SDG 14. 
The Oceans Global Action Event is co-organised by the Government of Morocco; Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Global Ocean Forum; Ocean and Climate Platform
This showcase event will feature high-level political leaders from around the world, heads of international agencies, NGOs, technical/policy experts, and private sector representatives to:
 – Highlight examples of adoption and implementation of the Paris Agreement;
 – Lend political support and provide suitable policy options in the implementation of actions on oceans, seas, coasts, and small islands developing States (SIDS) issues in the context of the Paris Agreement and the SDGs, especially SDG 14 on oceans and seas; 
– Connect the oceans, coasts and climate initiatives generated at and following COP 21 with national actions plans, initiatives and commitments, such as the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and the SDGs (as called for in the Road Map for Global Climate Action); 
– Showcase and promote financial support and capacity development to enable nations to fulfil their NDCs, with special emphasis on oceans, seas and coasts, and on the concerns from SIDS and African States; 
-Develop specific next steps for advancing the oceans and climate issues in the UNFCCC process in the next phase, as part of the Road Map for Global Climate Action, and to implement UN SDG 14.
Further Information:

Programme, found at weblink below

Resource for the Oceans Action Day

IISD Reporting Services, through its ENB+ Meeting Coverage,

EU Speech at Oceans Action Day at COP22 on November 12, 2016: “Oceans and Climate: Solutions to the Core Issues” in Marrakech, Morocco

Your Royal Highness, Your Serene Highness, Ministers, Ladies and Gentlemen, the entry into force of the Paris Agreement is a historic moment. It is also our chance to give the ocean its rightful place in the fight against climate change. Oceans are the unsung heroes of our planet’s climate. But now they are under severe pressure. Sea levels are rising. Acidity is threatening corals and shellfish. Unsustainable use of our oceans is eroding the growth base of our blue economy.
We have all endorsed the Paris Agreement. And we have all signed up to the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. We have promised to combat climate change, and to use our oceans sustainably. Now it is time to turn those pledges into action. That is why two days ago I launched a new initiative on international ocean governance. It is a list of 50 actions to manage our global oceans better. A manual to make our oceans safer, more secure, cleaner and more sustainably managed.I would like to highlight three main areas where we want to make a difference.
The first is ensuring a strong, comprehensive set of rules – and making sure that everybody plays by them. This means implementing and enforcing the global instruments we already have. It means improving coordination between various ocean bodies. And it means closing legal gaps:
  • For instance by developing, under UNCLOS, a legally binding instrument to protect marine life in areas beyond national jurisdiction.
  • Or adopting international rules to prevent unregulated fisheries in the Arctic, which climate change is making more accessible.
Second, we must protect the role of marine and coastal ecosystems in reducing the impacts of climate change.
  • Therefore, the European Commission will promote the inclusion of ocean‑related action in the national follow-up to the commitments under the Paris Agreement.
  • By 2020, we will also launch international public‑private partnerships aimed at restoring, adapting or developing ‘green blue infrastructure’.
Third, we need more scientific knowledge. We need to better understand how climate change affects the oceans. Only then can we make the right decisions. So I welcome the IPCC’s decision to produce, by 2018, a report on oceans and the cryosphere and the effects of climate change.  Building on this report, the European Commission will announce further international action to deal with the fall-out from ocean warming, sea-level rise and acidification.
Ladies and gentlemen, the European Union is committed to managing our oceans more responsibly. We are not alone in this. The “Strategic Action Roadmap on Oceans and Climate”, prepared ahead of today’s meeting, shares many of our views. I am pleased to see we are pushing in the same direction. We must do all we can to sustain that push. That is why I am happy to announce that the European Union is hosting the fourth Our Ocean conference in Malta on 5-6 of October 2017. I hope to see many of you there and to hear your commitments on how to conserve and sustainably use our ocean.
These commitments will be important contributions to our joint efforts to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change.  
Thank you.

Further Ocean Side Events for Climate Mitigation and Adaptation at COP 22

By Magdalena A K Muir, Advisory Board Member, Global and Climate Change, EUCC

 Wednesday 9 Nov; 10:30-12:00, EU Pavilion, Blue zone – Side event on “Changing oceans and seas around the world: implications for mitigation & adaptation”
Recent assessments of ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and sea-level rise identified serious risks to marine ecosystems, fisheries, andcoastal livelihoods and infrastructure. The Paris Agreement recognised the ocean and its ecosystems and the need to ensure their integrity and protecttheir biodiversity. A panel of international experts (involved in UN assessment reports, and national, EU, international and intergovernmentalprogrammes) will provide an integrated and updated perspective on the climate related changes, risks and projections for both natural and humanocean systems and make mitigation and adaptation recommendations for future UNFCCC processes.
Vladimir Ryabinin, Executive Secretary IOC-UNESCO: Chair
Carol Turley OBE, Plymouth Marine Laboratory: Why ocean change matters to society and the UNFCC
Hans Pörtner, AWI, IPCC Co-Chair WGII: The ocean and future CO2 emissions pathways: vulnerability, risk and future IPCC assessments
Ulf Riebesell, GEOMAR, Coordinator BIOACID: Ocean acidification and the latest findings from Germany
Nayrah Shaltout, NIOF, Cairo: A north African perspective of ocean change
Libby Jewett, Director NOAA Ocean Acidification Program, Co-Chair GOA-ON: Development of African ocean acidification observing initiatives
Jay Manning, The OA Alliance: An International Collaborative to Combat Ocean Acidification
Dorothee Herr, IUCN : Coastal and marine nature-based solutions to adaptation and mitigation
Phillip Williamson, NERC and UEA: An ocean perspective on CO2 removal and global warming  reduction methodology
Thursday 10 Nov; 15:30-16:30, UK Pavilion, Green zone – Side event on “Climate readiness – Ocean based adaptation and mitigation” 
A panel discussion on the current and future potential role of the ocean in adaptation and mitigation of climate change and potential uncertainties. These include protection, expansion and location of marine carbon sinks (blue carbon), use of small scale algal farming to enhance local fishers’ adaptive capacity to ocean acidification, large scale capture and storage of CO2 in strata below the seabed and how the ocean could be impacted by global warming reduction methodology. The panel will discuss potential for maladaptation and need for transdisciplinary science based decisions.
Chair: Dr Carol Turley, OBE, Plymouth Marine Laboratory: Introduction to panel members and the role of the ocean in the carbon cycle and in mitigating CC/OA
Dr Phil Williamson, University of East Anglia and NERC: Global warming reduction methodologies and their potential uncertainties for the ocean
Dr Ana Queiros, Plymouth Marine Laboratory: Blue Carbon + Climate Ready Conservation = Climate Action
Dr Carol Turley, OBE, Plymouth Marine Laboratory: Carbon farming: a potential ecosystem based adaptation for developing coastal communities
Mr Tim Dixon, IEAGHG: Large scale CCS pros and cons for the ocean
Friday 11 Nov; 18:30-20:00; UNFCCC Side event, Blue zone, Mediterranean room  – Avoiding Irreversible Ocean and Polar Thresholds – Raising Ambition for 2018 Facilitative Dialogues 
Risks of Irreversible Changes to Oceans and Cryosphere and Current NDCs: Building on the Paris Agreement
18:30 Christy Goldfuss, Managing Director, White House Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), U.S.
18:40 Ocean Acidification and Warming and Current NDCs.
Dr. Carol Turley OBE, Sr. Scientist, Plymouth Marine Laboratory
18:55 Risks of Irreversible Cryospheric Change and Current NDCs: Ice sheets and Sea-level rise, Sea Ice and
Permafrost. Dr. Svante Bodin, Director, ICCI-Europe and Chair, Swedish Meteorological Society
19:10 Arctic Changes Mean Global Changes: The Arctic Council’s Latest Assessments: Acidification and SWIPA
2017. Dr. Lars-Otto Reiersen, Executive Secretary, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme
19:25 Science Evidence to Needed Policies: The IPCC’s 1.5oC and Oceans and Cryosphere Special Reports.
Hans-Otto Pörtner, Co-Chair of IPCC WGII
19.40 Intergovernmental Responses and Mandate to Changing Oceans and Cryosphere.
Dr. Vladimir Ryabinin, Executive Secretary, IOC-UNESCO