By Magdalena A K Muir, Advisory Board Member, Climate and Global Change, EUCC
The Paris Agreement was a complete document that set out the overarching goals and framework for international climate action. But setting out the details is a longer process, which the countries participating in COP 22 have decided should be completed by 2018, with a review of progress in 2017. This timeline means that few of the loose ends left by the Paris Agreement were completely tied up in Marrakech. Instead, the process was one of defining the issues at stake and outlining what kind of documents and workshops will be needed to make sense of them by the 2018 deadline. The official outcomes of the COP were a collection of diverse documents. But some of the more substantial questions and discussions were captured in a series of “informal notes”.
COP 22 Outcomes
Finance : Finance is always controversial with little progress. In effect, they agreed to continue discussing it. Countries were urged to continue scaling up their financial contributions towards the pre-agreed “$100bn a year by 2020” goal, and to achieve a greater balance between adaptation and mitigation. Some countries had hoped for stronger wording on this, since adaptation has long trailed mitigation, to the detriment of the most vulnerable countries.
Adaptation Fund-: The Adaptation Fund, exists to serve the Kyoto Protocol (the deal struck in 1997 committing developed nations to emissions cuts up to 2020).Countries merely agreed to discuss the issue and hand in their views by 31 March 2017.
Facilitative Dialogue: The organisation of the 2018 facilitative dialogue proved to be controversial. Countries agreed in Paris that they would convene in 2018 to take stock of how climate action was going so far — a discussion that is intended to inform the next round of national pledges, known as nationally determined contributions, or NDCs. In Marrakech, it was decided that the presidents of COP22 and the forthcoming COP23 would consult with countries on the organisation of this dialogue and report back on their findings in a year’s time. Article 4 of the Paris Agreement deals with both the long-term net-zero emissions in the second half of the century” goal, as well as the need for NDCs to provide “clarity and transparency. A key theme of COP22 was debating how best to create a fair rulebook that all countries could share and have confidence in when assessing each other’s climate pledges. The technicalities of the rulebook – baselines, methodologies, etc – will be discussed in 2018.
Orphan issues: The orphans issues” of the Paris Agreement are tasks for which no one was assigned responsibility. They include issues, such as common timeframes for future climate pledges, and a new goal for climate finance.
Loss and damage Countries also approved a five-year workplan on “loss and damage”, which will start in 2017 and will see countries start to formally address topics such as slow-onset impacts of climate change, non-economic losses (for example, culture and identity) and migration. In other words, dealing with climate impacts that are beyond adaptation.
Other outcomes:. The Marrakech Action Proclamation, issued by heads of state and government gathered at the COP, was widely seen as a reaffirmation of global commitment to the Paris Agreement. A new fund to encourage transparency efforts was established and given a $50m injection of cash from countries including Australia, Canada and Germany. Forty seven of the world’s poorest countries, which have grouped together as the Climate Vulnerable Forum, committed to generating 100% of their energy from renewable sources as soon as possible. and to update their nationally determined contributions before 2020 and to prepare long-term strategies.
All COP 22 Documents and Decisions are listed on the UNFCCC website here http://unfccc.int/2860.php#auv
|Decisions adopted by COP 22 and CMP 12 and CMA 1|